The Human Genome Project was started to accurately sequence 3 billion euchromatic human genome DNA base pairs within a period of 15 years
The human genome project was a 13 year long, international scientific research launched in 1990 with an objective of determining the sequence of the 3 billion DNA base pairs that make up the entire human genome. It is still the world’s largest collaborative project in the field of biological research. This project involved 20 universities and research centers from countries such as United States, United Kingdom, France, Japan, China, and Germany.
Goals of the human genome project
- The main goal of the Human Genome Project was to determine a complete and accurate sequence of the 3 billion DNA base pairs that make up the entire euchromatic human genome within 15 years.
- The goal was also intended to find all of the estimated 20,000 to 25,000 human genes.
- This project mission also involved the sequence of genomes of several other organisms such as mouse and fruits fly that play a crucial role in medical research.
- Along with DNA sequencing, the project involved the development of new tools for the collection and processing of the data and to make this information widely available.
- Exploring the consequences of genetics advancements and research through its Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) program.
Accomplishments of the human genome project
- One of the key findings of this project was approximately 22,300 protein-coding genes were found in human beings.
- Research done in this project provided detailed information about the structure, organization, and function of the complete set of human genes.
- The tools created during this project are extensively used in biological research to study the genomes of several organisms such as flatworms and mice.
- Many social concerns such as the use of human genome data to discriminate people were raised during this project. Therefore, in 1996, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was passed in the USA to protect the unauthorized and non-consensual release of individually identifiable health information to any entity not actively engaged in the provision of healthcare services to a patient.
Participating Institutes and Research Centers
Following universities and research centers were part of this massive biological research initiative.
|1||USA||The Whitehead Institute/MIT Center for Genome Research|
|2||UK||The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute|
|3||USA||Washington University School of Medicine Genome Sequencing Center|
|4||USA||United States DOE Joint Genome Institute|
|5||USA||Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center|
|6||Japan||RIKEN Genomic Sciences Center|
|7||France||Genoscope and CNRS UMR-8030|
|8||USA||GTC Sequencing Center|
|9||Germany||Department of Genome Analysis|
|10||China||Beijing Genomics Institute/Human Genome Center|
|11||USA||Multimegabase Sequencing Center|
|12||USA||Stanford Genome Technology Center|
|13||USA||Stanford Human Genome Center and Department of Genetics|
|14||USA||University of Washington Genome Center|
|15||Japan||Department of Molecular Biology|
|16||USA||University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas|
|17||USA||University of Oklahoma’s Advanced Center for Genome Technology|
|18||Germany||Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics|
|19||USA||Lita Annenberg Hazen Genome Center|
|20||Germany||GBF/German Research Centre for Biotechnology|