Yes, rabbits can and do fart. Actually it is necessary for rabbits to fart to stay healthy and prevent diseases. Rabbits are non-ruminant herbivores mammals, also known as monogastric organisms that have a single-chambered stomach. Herbivores such as bunnies depend on microbial fermentation to digest cellulose and extract nutrients in their large intestine called the caecum. This non-ruminant digestive system of rabbits is less efficient to digest cellulose as compared to ruminants such as cow, goat, and sheep.
You must be thinking does this inefficient digestive system is the main culprit for the farting. But no, the combination of this ineffective digestive system with other factors such as an unbalanced diet is responsible for the farting in the rabbits. Due to this inefficient digestion system and the diet of the rabbit, gas is produced in the caecum which gets removed through the anus. The pressure build-up due to gas formation can be very painful for rabbits. Therefore, it is necessary for rabbits to release this gas through farting.
The Diet of the rabbit is primarily responsible for the gas build-up and farting. Therefore, to prevent the buildup gas within the intestine, the diet of the rabbit should be maintained properly. Diets which include sugary fruits and vegetables such as grains, nuts, corn, carrot, beans, peas, and cauliflower should be avoided to prevent gastrointestinal issues.
Apart from diet, the lack of exercise, high stress, and other health issues can be responsible for gastrointestinal stasis caused due to the build-up of gas in the intestine. In case of lack of exercise, gentle stomach massage, or movement should be encouraged so that the gas will pass through the digestive tract and exit through the anus.
One should contact the veterinarian for help, in case the rabbit is going through a lot of pain.